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# Reynolds number unit

The Reynolds number (Re) helps predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.At low Reynolds numbers, flows tend to be dominated by laminar (sheet-like) flow, while at high Reynolds numbers flows tend to be turbulent.The turbulence results from differences in the fluid's speed and direction, which may sometimes intersect or even move counter to the overall direction of the flow. Reynolds number is a dimensionless number use to define the nature of flow i.e. Laminar,transition,or turbulent flow. Flow rate and Reynolds number is given as, V= velocity of flow, v= kinematic viscosity,m=mass flow rate So above equation gives u the relation between Reynolds number & mass flow rate Reynolds number is defined as, Re = ρVmD/μ where Vm is the average velocity at the inlet of a diffuser, D is the diameter (or equivalent diameter) of the diffuser inlet, and ρ and μ the density and viscosity of the test fluid

### Reynolds number - Wikipedi

1. The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number used to categorize the fluids systems in which the effect of viscosity is important in controlling the velocities or the flow pattern of a fluid. Mathematically, the Reynolds number, NRe, is defined as
2. Reynolds Number for a Pipe or Duct in Imperial Units. The Reynolds number for a pipe or duct expressed in Imperial units. Re = 7745.8 u d h / ν (2a) where. Re = Reynolds Number (non dimensional) u = velocity (ft/s) d h = hydraulic diameter (in) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) (1 cSt = 10-6 m 2 /s
4. Unit of Reynolds Number = kg x m x m x m.s/(m 3 x s x kg) Unit of Reynolds Number = 1 =.

### What is the SI unit of the Reynolds number? - Quor

• e the type of flow pattern as la
• Reynolds Number Formula Reynolds number is a dimensionless value which is applied in fluid mechanics to represent whether the fluid flow in a duct or pat a body is steady or turbulent. This value is obtained by comparing the inertial force with the viscous force. The Reynolds number id denoted by Re
• How to calculate Reynolds number? - Reynolds number equation. The Reynolds number formula depends on viscosity. We generally distinguish two types of viscosity: Dynamic viscosity μ is a quantity that measures the force needed to overcome internal friction in a fluid. The units of dynamic viscosity are: Pa/s, N/(m²*s) or kg/(m*s)
• The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number. High values of the parameter (on the order of 10 million) indicate that viscous forces are small and the flow is essentially inviscid. The Euler equations can then be used to model the flow. Low values of the parameter (on the order of 1 hundred) indicate that viscous forces must be considered
• The Reynolds number Re then becomes: Re = (r * V * dV/dx) / (mu * d^2V/dx^2) The gradient of the velocity is proportional to the velocity divided by a length scale L. Similarly, the second derivative of the velocity is proportional to the velocity divided by the square of the length scale
• ar or turbulent.It can be interpreted that when the viscous forces are do

Moreover, they have the same unit that means Reynolds number is unitless. Furthermore, we can conclude whether the flowing fluid is turbulent or laminar based on Reynolds Number. Most noteworthy, if Reynolds number is less than 2,300 then it has a laminar flow. On the other hand, if it is more than 4,000 then it indicates turbulent flow The unit Reynolds number effect has been observed in various hypersonic facilities (Stainback 1967; Stainback et al. 1974; McCauley et al. 1966; Softley et al. 1969) and was carefully investigated by Stetson et al. . However, it has never been investigated in a large subsonic flow regime before, which is most relevant for commercial aircraft today

Reynold's number is defined as the ratio of the inertial forces divided to the viscous force per unit area for a flowing fluid. Consider a tube of a small area of cross-section A, through which a fluid of density ρ is flowing with velocity v. The mass of the fluid through tube per second, ∆m = volume of fluid flowing per second x densit The Reynolds Number. The density, viscosity, and the kinematic viscosity all have in some way the unit (ft) in them. Therefore, in the formula, speed V and length L are respectively in feet per second and in linear feet. For airspeed in miles per hour, because one mph = 1.46667 fps, we use the number The Reynolds Number formula is: Re = VDρ/μ or Re = VD/v where V is the fluid velocity, D is the characteristic distance, ρ is the fluid density, ν is the kinematic viscosity, and μ is the dynamic viscosity both of which can be acquired from data tables Reynolds Number Formula. The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and is a convenient parameter for predicting if a flow condition will be laminar or turbulent.It can be interpreted that when the viscous forces are dominant (slow flow, low Re) they are sufficient enough to keep all the fluid particles in line, then the flow is laminar The critical Reynolds number is the Reynolds number at which a laminar flow is expected to change into a turbulent flow! When a fluid flows over a flat plate, a turbulent flow is to be expected if the Reynolds numbers are greater than 100,000. In stirred vessels, the critical Reynolds numbers are around 10,000

The Reynolds number (Re) is the ratio of inertial resistance to viscous resistance for a flowing fluid.; The Reynolds number is a non-dimensional (unitless) factor governing resistance due to viscosity (among other things). Reynolds, Osborne. An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous, and of the law of resistanc Technically speaking, the Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces. This ratio helps to categorize laminar flows from the turbulent ones. Inertial forces resist a change in the velocity of an object and are the cause of the fluid movement. These forces are dominant in turbulent flows Reynolds number between 2000 and 4000 covers a critical zone between laminar and turbulent flow. It is not possible to predict the type of flow that exists within a critical zone. Thus, if the Reynolds number lies in the critical zone, turbulent flow should be assumed. If turbulent flow is allowed to exist, higher fluid temperatures occur due.

The Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity for dynamic similarity and is calculated as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces of a flow of liquid. Knowing Re one can anticipate the transition from laminar to turbulent flow which is the main utility of a Reynolds Number calculator Reynolds numbers the viscous forces predominate and at higher Reynolds numbers the inertia forces are in the ascendency. The simple equation that determines Reynolds number is given in equation 1, showing that it is a function of a characteristic dimension D, usually in the case of flow measuring.

Reynolds Number Calculator in Excel. In this post I'll demonstrate how to create a Reynolds number calculator in Excel that can: Handle input values in a variety of different unit systems. Calculate the Reynold's number based on the input conditions. Return a sentence that tells how the flow is classified: Turbulent, Transitional, or Laminar Today I explain the flight parameter Reynolds number The Reynolds number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is a dimensionless number comprised of the physical characteristics of the flow. Equation 3-7 is used to calculate the Reynolds number (N R) for fluid flow Reynolds Number Calculation. The Reynolds number (Re) of a flowing fluid is calculated by multiplying the fluid velocity by the internal pipe diameter (to obtain the inertia force of the fluid) and then dividing the result by the kinematic viscosity (viscous force per unit length). Kinematic viscosity = dynamic viscosity/fluid density

Reynolds Number = µ Units and Dimensions where = density of the fluid (kg/m3) D = diameter of pipe (m) v = mean velocity of fluid (m/s) = dynamic viscosity (kg/m· s) What is the net dimension of Reynolds Number? 1. Importance of Dimensionless Quantities Used in arguments of special functions such as exponential, logarithmic, or trigonometric. Definition: Reynolds number is defined as the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces within a fluid. It is clear thus, that Reynolds number is an indicator towards the likelihood of the flow of a fluid being either turbulent or laminar. Being a ratio, it is a dimensionless quantity, meaning it has no units. Mathematically, the. For More Information about Reynolds Number A wide variety of online resources provide general information about Reynolds number including several YouTube videos. If you need assistance with Reynolds number as it relates to your industrial mixing application, email ProQuip at applications@proquipinc.com or call us at 330-468-1850 <p>As the objects grow larger, their inertia starts to dominate over the viscous forces. The increasing asymmetry with increasing Ma is a symptom of the fall-off in. Determine the total drag force and the rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate. We assume the critical Reynolds number is 5x105. The properties of the oil at the film temperature are: m s k W mK kg m C T T T s f 242 10 / Pr 2870 0.144 /( . ) 876 / 40 2 6 2 3 The Re number for the plate is

### What is the unit of Reynolds number? - AskingLot

Just to confirm, my wind tunnel experimental Reynolds number is 380,000. So when I specify the Reynolds number in XFoil using the Re command, do I need to enter it as 1107872 (Reynolds number based on a UNIT chord) which will be 380,000 when multiplied by 0.343m (actual chord length) Osbourne Reynolds was the first to experimentally measure these two types of flow. He was able to characterize the transition between these two types of flow by a parameter called the Reynolds number that depends on the average velocity of the fluid in the pipe, the diameter, and the viscosity of the fluid Vol.:(0123456789)1 Experiments in Fluids (2018) 59:86 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-018-2538-8 RESEARCH ARTICLE Unit Reynolds number, Mach number and pressure. The Reynolds number is a ratio of inertial force to viscous force in a flowing fluid. Recall that inertial force is the momentum of moving fluids, and viscous force is the friction in flowing fluids Reynolds Number Calculator in Excel. In this post I'll demonstrate how to create a Reynolds number calculator in Excel that can: Handle input values in a variety of different unit systems. Calculate the Reynold's number based on the input conditions. Return a sentence that tells how the flow is classified: Turbulent, Transitional, or Laminar

### Reynolds' Number - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

1. e if a flow is turbulent or la
2. Effect of unit Reynolds number, nose bluntness, angle of.
3. ar or turbulent. If Re is less than 2000, the flow is called La
4. ate -High NRe=> Inertial forces do

Unit Reynolds number, Mach number and pressure gradient e ects on laminar turbulent transition in two-dimensional boundary layers Ste en Risius 1 · Marco Costantini 1 · Stefan Koch 1 · Stefan. Reynolds number formula: R= R = Reynolds number U = Fluid velocity, (m/s) L = characteristic length or diameter (m) V = Kinematic viscosity ( /s) Reynolds number R is independent of pressure SOLTEQ® OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL : FM11) Page 5 4.1 Pipe Flow Conditions For water flowing in pipe or circular conduits, L is the diameter of. A low Reynolds number model is a model that correctly reproduces the limiting behaviors of various flow quantities as the distance to the wall approaches zero. So, a low Reynolds number model must, for example, predict that k~y 2 as y→0. Correct limiting behavior means that the turbulence model can be used to model the whole boundary layer. Calculator description. Reynolds number named after Osborne Reynolds (1842 - 1912), gives the relation between inertial and viscous forces of fluid flow. If inertial forces (flow rate) are much bigger, and Reynolds number is higher than critical, Re > 2320, fluid flow is turbulent, and if viscous forces are big enough in comparison to. Reynolds number is used in fluid mechanics, to characterize the movement of a fluid. Its value shows if flow follows a laminar or turbulent flow. This concept was introduced by Stokes and popularized by Osborne Reynolds. It is used in several fields like piping design, reactors design or biology. Reynolds number is defined as the relationship.

### Reynolds Number - Engineering ToolBo

1. Typically the turbulence intensity is between 5% and 20%. Medium-turbulence case: Flow in not-so-complex devices like large pipes, ventilation flows etc. or low speed flows (low Reynolds number ). Typically the turbulence intensity is between 1% and 5%. Low-turbulence case: Flow originating from a fluid that stands still, like external flow.
2. Definition. Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is in relative motion to a surface. inertial forces defined in the classical way'. where: is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s)is a characteristic linear dimension, (travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic diameter when dealing with river systems) (m
3. The ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and ISO (International Organization of Standards) have been working on guidelines for Venturi tubes since the early 1900s. The organizations have the most confidence in Venturi tube accuracy when the Reynolds number is in the range of 10 5 to 10 6 as discussed below

### Reynolds number SI unit and dimensional formula - YouTub

1. Reynolds number Reþ, which is the ratio of the size of the largest eddies, set by the size of the ﬂow domain R (e.g., radiusinpipeﬂow),tothesizeofthesmallesteddies contained in eddies smaller than the sensor length is effec-,set by the viscous dissipation of energy, so that Reþ ¼ R= . In high Reynolds number turbulent ﬂows, which includ
2. The units of ν are m 2 s − 1 where Re b is the bulk Reynolds number defined by the diameter of the pipe and the bulk mean velocity. The Dittus-Boelter equation can be found in many textbooks on heat transfer, e.g., . Now, it is generally agreed that such power-law prediction is not accurate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, in.
3. Reynolds Number for a Pipe or Duct in Imperial Units . The Reynolds number for a pipe or duct can also be expressed in Imperial units . Re = (7745.8) u d / ν . where . Re = Reynolds Number (non dimensional) u = Velocity (ft/s) d = Pipe diameter (in) ν = Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) (1 cSt = 10 -6 m 2 /s
4. ar Flow, Turbulent Flow and Energy Losses Due to Friction 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 8.2 Reynolds Number • The Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertia force on an element of fluid to the viscous force. • The inertia force is developed from Newton's second law of motion, F = ma
5. Reynolds (reyns) (reyns (reyn)) is a unit in the category of Dynamic viscosity.This unit is commonly used in the FPS unit system. Reynolds (reyns) (reyns (reyn)) has a dimension of ML-1 T-1 where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. It can be converted to the corresponding standard SI unit Pa-s by multiplying its value by a factor of 6894.75729449
6. ar, transitional and turbulent). This article will show you how to calculate and interpret the Reynolds number
7. Take a quick interactive quiz on the concepts in Reynolds Number: Definition & Equation or print the worksheet to practice offline. These practice questions will help you master the material and.

### What is Reynolds Number for Laminar & Turbulent Flow

The variation of unit Reynolds number Re/cMAC is shown for typical commercial aircraft applications. Re = Reynolds Number (non dimensional) u = velocity (ft/s) d h = hydraulic diameter (in) ν = kinematic viscosity (cSt) (1 cSt = 10-6 m 2 /s ) The Reynolds Number can be used to determine if flow is laminar, transient or turbulent to be high in order to keep the Reynolds number per unit length reasonably low. Favourable pressure gradients are necessary and are obtained through a careful design of the wing sections. Devices to stabilize the boundary layer are also used. Reynolds numbers still higher are typically for large water-immersed ve The SI derived unit for dynamic viscosity is the pascal second. 1 pascal second is equal to 0.00014503773779686 reynolds, or 1000 centipoise. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results This calculator computes the Reynolds Number given the flow characteristics asked for below. It outputs the flow type you can expect (laminar, transitional, or turbulent) based on the Reynolds Number result.Think of the Characteristic Distance as the distance from the leading edge (where the fluid first makes contact) for flow over a plate, or as the pipe diameter for flow inside a pipe Reynolds Number Equation Formula Calculator Fluid Mechanics - Hydrology - Hydraulics This calculator determine Reynolds Number to determine if flow is laminar, transitional or turbulent

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics that is used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. The Reynolds Number serves as a guide to the laminar-turbulent transition in a particular flow situation, 1 and for the scaling of similar but different-sized flow situations Definition. The Nusselt number is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across a boundary. The convection and conduction heat flows are parallel to each other and to the surface normal of the boundary surface, and are all perpendicular to the mean fluid flow in the simple case. = = / = where h is the convective heat transfer coefficient of the flow, L is the characteristic length. Show that the Reynolds number N_{\mathrm{R}} is unitless by substituting units for all the quantities in its definition and cancelling. ������ Announcing Numerade's \$26M Series A, led by IDG Capital! Read how Numerade will revolutionize STEM Learnin

### Reynolds Number - Definitions, Formulas And Examples - BYJU'

The dimensionless Reynolds number is used to classify the state of flow. The Reynolds Number Demonstration is a classic experiment, based on visualizing flow behavior by slowly and steadily injecting dye into a pipe. This experiment was first performed by Osborne Reynolds in the late nineteenth century. 2. Practical Application The Reynolds number is a measure of how easily liquids flow versus how much they resist flow under shear. Liquids with a low Reynolds number have a high viscosity, and liquids with a high Reynolds number have a low viscosity. History of the Reynolds Number. The Reynolds number is named after Osborne Reynolds, a British physicist and engineer The Reynolds number is defined as the ratio of ´inertial´ forces to viscous forces. In Fluid Mechanics it is advantageous to use mass per unit volume of the body (fluid in this case), that is its density, so that Newton's law (or rather, the Navier-Stokes equation) is written with the terms having dimensions of force per unit volume of. From the Wikipedia article for Reynolds number: In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions

Calculation of the Nusselt number using Dittus-Boelter equation. For fully developed (hydrodynamically and thermally) turbulent flow in a smooth circular tube, the local Nusselt number may be obtained from the well-known Dittus-Boelter equation. To calculate the Nusselt number, we have to know: the Reynolds number, which is Re Dh = 57560 FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Terengganu Kampus Bukit Besi, Bukit Besi, Dungun, TERENGGANU TECHNICAL/EXECUTIVE REPORT : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Lab No. : 4 Module : 4 Topic : Osborne Reynolds Demonstration Unit Mark : 100 Date : 26th NOVEMBER 2017 Participant Course : CHE 241 Semester : 3 Group: EH 110 3A *Please cancel No. Name Matrix No. Signature which is. 1. Stokes' Law and Reynolds Number. Stokes' Law is a proposition that relates the drag force experienced by a falling sphere to the sphere's (constant) velocity in a liquid of known viscosity. where F d is the drag force, is the liquid viscosity, V is the (terminal) velocity, and d is the diameter of the sphere

### Reynolds Number Formula - Definition, Formula And Solved

See details for 301 S Reynolds Street UNIT 616, Alexandria, VA 22304, 1 Bedrooms, 1 Full Bathrooms, 824 Sq Ft., Condo, MLS#: VAAX2002772, Status: NEW LISTING. 2.2.1 The Reynolds Number Re. In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial (resistant to change or motion) forces to viscous (heavy and gluey) forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions.(The term inertial forces, which characterize how much a particular. Effect of unit Reynolds number, nose bluntness, angle of attack, and roughness on transition on a 5 deg half-angle cone at Mach 8 Effect of unit Reynolds number, nose bluntness, angle of attack, and roughness on transition on 5 degree half-angle cone at Mach 8. Document ID. 19690005540

The Reynolds Number is a non-dimensional parameter defined by the ratio of. dynamic pressure (ρ u 2) andshearing stress (μ u / L)The Reynolds Number can be used to determine if flow is laminar, transient or turbulent UNIT 1 - View presentation slides online. WIND TUNNEL AERO UNIT 1 NOTE Reynolds Number. Reynolds number defined as (where L is a characteristic length) may be interpreted as the ratio of two forces that influence the behavior of fluid flow in the boundary layer. These two forces are the inertia forces and viscous forces: When the Reynolds number is large, the inertia forces are in command The Reynolds number perhaps is the most common dimensionless parameter used in fluid mechanics. It is defined as. Re = ρVL/μ. where ρ is the density, V is the velocity, L is the characteristic length, and μ is the viscosity. The L term is different for each flow type. For example, for a pipe, L is the diameter of the pipe

### Reynolds Number Calculato

The Reynolds number, referred to as Re, is used to determine whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent. It is one of the main controlling parameters in all viscous flows where a numerical model is selected according to pre-calculated Reynolds number Note that the Reynolds number is a dimensionlessquan-tity (Chap. 7). Also, kinematic viscosity has the unit m2/s, and can be viewed as viscous diffusivityor diffusivity for momentum. At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces, which are proportional to the fluid density and the square of the fluid velocity, are large relative to th The pressure drop per unit length for flow through a duct is given by..(16) where f is Fanning friction factor, Δz is the length, v is the velocity, ρ is the density, D hyd is a characteristic diameter, and ΔP is the pressure drop. The friction factor depends on Reynolds number, Re, and the roughness of the pipe Reynolds Unit G Plot 100 Forest Business Park Walker Road, Bardon Hill Coalville LE67 1UB; Bristol Depot Reynolds Unit 3, 247 Armstrong Way, Great Western Business Park, Yate, Bristol, BS37 5NH; Grangemouth Depot Reynolds Unit 1B Block 1 West Mains Industrial Estate Grangemouth FK3 8YE; Leeds Depot Reynolds Bypass Park Industrial Estate.

### Reynolds Number - NAS

• examples of Reynolds numbers of particles of varied diameters in air at p=1 atm, T=20˚C. • for particles in any range of Reynolds number we can describe the drag force in terms of an empirical coefficient and particle projected area (A p): - any shape F drag=C DA p ρ(u2/2) - spherical particles F drag=πC DD Reynolds number calculation. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless value that measures the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and descibes the degree of laminar or turbulent flow. Systems that operate at the same Reynolds number will have the same flow characteristics even if the fluid, speed and characteristic lengths vary The Reynold's number is R = 27.2. This number is much less than 2300, which means it is in the range that indicates laminar flow. For room-temperature honey in this pipe, the flow is laminar. For higher-temperature honey, with viscosity 0.0200Pa∙s, the Reynold's number is: R = 13600. The Reynold's number is R = 13600 For low Reynolds number airfoils (Re < 1/2 million), the demands on the where S is the unit vector bisecting the trailing edge angle, and is the unit vector along the trailing edge panel as shown in Figure I. For the airfoil with flat panels, equation (1) evaluates to the following expression for the streamfunc-.

### What is Reynolds Number for Pipe Flow - Definitio

• Biot number (Bi) Biot number (Bi) equation. The Biot number, Bi is dimensionless, which is ratio between of the internal and external resistance. where. h is the average heat Transfer coeficient. L length dimention, The ratio between the volume and the surface area. k thermal conductivity
• We can now talk of high Reynolds number flow or low Reynolds number pipe flow, knowing that in this context low means somewhat less than 2000. The kinematic viscosity of water is approximately 10^{-6} m^2/s (that of honey is about 10^{-3} m^2/s, 1000 times greater than that of water)
• ar or turbulent in nature. The world of science is full of numbers. There are different parameters used to define specific processes or entities, which has made the flow of information quite simple. The universally accepted norms and units.
• ar, turbulent and transitional. It describes the relationship between viscous force and inertial force

### Reynolds Number Formula: Derivation, Equation, Example

• ar. The flow undergoes transition to turbulence in the range of Reynolds numbers from 2,300 to 4,000, and can be considered turbulent for Reynolds number equal to or greater than approximately 4,000
• imaginary planes normal to the bottom and with unit spacing, one pair parallel to the flow and spaced a distance B apart, and the other normal to the flow and spaced a distance L apart (Figure 4-1). Figure 4-1. Definition sketch for deriving the boundary shear stress in steady uniform flow down an inclined plane
• Understanding Reynolds number scaling effects in wind tunnel results is something that is still being studied today. As has been pointed out, to match Re, you have to increase speed. However, increasing speed, increases Mach number and dynamic pressure (q=0..5ρ V^2). Dynamic pressure leads to model deflections
• ing whether the Reynolds number characterizing the location of boundary layer transition on a body in free flight within an aeroballistic range would vary as the unit Reynolds number changed. The more pro
• - For Reynolds number per unit length, the MATLAB script behaves exactly like the FORTRAN executable in this case. Any consistent set of units may be used. The Reynolds number per unit length is the Reynolds number divided by the characteristic length in the units used in the configuration data     An experimental study of the influence of unit Reynolds number on the position of laminar-turbulent transition in swept-wing boundary layer at supersonic flow velocities was carried out. In the experiments, a swept-wing model with 3-% circular arc airfoil and 45-deg gliding angle of wing edges was used. The position of the transition was iden-tified using a hot-wire anemometer Now it is customary to define a new variable k, the average fluctuating kinetic energy per unit mass, by: (5) By dividing equation 1 by 2.0 and inserting this definition, the equation for the average kinetic energy per unit mass of the fluctuating motion can be re-written as: The Reynolds number dependence of the ratio for grid turbulence. Unit Reynolds number, Mach number and pressure gradient effects on laminar-turbulent transition in two-dimensional boundary layers 7 May 2018 | Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 59, No. 5 Direct numerical simulation of transition in a sharp cone boundary layer at Mach 6: fundamental breakdow